The retentional process is aided by coding and rehearsal. Rodwell, J. and Hayes, J. Case study of school students to understand nature of learner and learning process. Most teachers know intuitively that learners remember better if they pay attention: their task is to provide stimuli and employ strategies that combat the natural forgetting process. By getting students to recite material – engaging the psychomotor responses of speech, and the auditory sense. By making the learning active – more likely to encourage recall than passive learning. Capturing students’ attention will ensure that material enters short-term memory; the goal however is for something to enter long-term memory, the storage system, and be ready for retrieval. Learning occupies a very important place in our life. There is currently great emphasis on ‘active learning’, wherein the student is an active participant by means of activities, feedback and discussion etc. However, psychologists became more and more interested in what was going on inside the brain, due partly to the growth of neuroscience and of cognitive psychology. Knowledge of the nature of the pupil’s intellect is of considerable value in the guidance and the diagnosis of disability. Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. By making the information more ‘meaningful’, for example by linking it to existing knowledge, by giving it a structure, or by providing a brief overview at the beginning (‘In this lecture we shall be looking at X, Y and Z.’). Motivation, persistence, conformity, ability to multi-task etc. Social constructivist scholars view learning as an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves, hence the importance of encouraging guesswork and intuitive thinking in learners. Knowledge, according to Claxton (1990, pp. Learning is through Experience. The task or problem is thus the interface between the instructor and the learner. Until the 1970s, the most favoured perspective was that of the behaviourists, who were more concerned with the measurable outputs of learning, such as the ability to reproduce facts, than in the mental processes involved. Their cognitive style index measures learning styles along the wholistic/analytic dimension. The nature of learning Behaviourism and constructivism. The wholistic thinker is more likely to see the whole picture, be more intuitive, and notice similarities rather than differences. A wooden presentation is not conducive to learning. Action Learning: the learners play a much more active role in determining the objectives of the learning than in guided learning; there is a strong element of learner … An obvious example of such attention grabbing is that fact that most people remember what they were doing at the time of significant events, such as 9/11. In fact, for the social constructivist, reality is not something that we can discover because it does not pre-exist prior to our social invention of it. However, there has been little research on cognitive learning styles and performance (Spicer, 2004). 2. The first two are conscious memory; the latter is a storage system of vast capacity which under the right circumstances can move items back to working memory. Nature versus Nurture: Why My Child’s Learning Development is a Product of the Environment I Create. Unsurprisingly, the growth of interest in constructivism gave rise to more ‘student centred’ forms of teaching, such as independent and group learning. Nature is an unbeatable source of inspiration – not just in the sense of creating art but also nature helps to clear head, gain perspective and become more creative at problem-solving. Some years ago, Säljö (1979) carried out a simple, but very useful piece of research. A review of the research on study approach and style’. (1994). Learners compare their version of the truth with that of the instructor and fellow learners in order to get to a new, socially tested version of truth. Learning better achieved alone, with peers in a group, with authoritative adult etc. According to dual coding theory, information is best recalled if it is stored in both verbal and visual form. Kukla (2000) argues that reality is constructed by our own activities and that people, together as members of a society, invent the properties of the world. Learning as acquiring facts, skills, and methods that can be retained and usedas necessary. Variations in tone of delivery, use of gesture, movement etc. Successful retrieval depends on the ability of the information to fit into these structures. Learning is the process of change which enables an organism itself to the environment, it is therfore a process of development and growth and it is characterized by flexibility because the individual has to adapt itself constantly to the circumstances of the environment. Their responses fell into five main categories: 1. Additionally, learning styles may not be fixed universal attributes but may be the result of cultural influences: some students may be more used to a very lecture-dependent approach. Knowledge is thus a product of humans and is socially and culturally constructed. The above views see learning as a one-off process; others see it as a cycle. 3. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced. Provide a positive learning environment, giving attention to issues of delivery and feedback, clearly stating course goals, and providing explicit guidance on assessment requirements. Such ideas are well established, and go back to Pask’s Conversation Theory, according to which learning becomes a ‘conversation’ between tutor and taught (Pask, 1976), and indeed before that to the Socratic dialogue. 4. A second major source of learning is through observation. The "nature of the learner" refers to how each learner learns. 6. The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience. By which sensory mode is learning better achieved: auditory, visual or kinetic. Dunn, R., Dunn, K., and Perrin, J. Sadler-Smith (1996) summarizes the stages thus: Learning is thus a process of observation, reflection, abstraction and experimentation. A learning style differs from a learning strategy, which is a more conscious plan of action as to how to acquire new knowledge, skills or attitudes, and from learning preferences, which is how people prefer to be taught, for example a person may opt for one of the following (Sadler-Smith, 1996): There are many different models or how people learn, but little theoretical underpinning for these models or research as to which are the most effective. Opinions differ as to whether knowledge exists independently and is transmissible, or whether it resides purely in the mind of the learner. These cognitive abilities cannot be develop without the active involvement and engagement of the learner. The result is four different types of knowledge, which correspond to different styles according to which people acquire, and subsequently transform, knowledge (Kolb, 1984): Divergent knowledge: concrete experience (CE) transformed through reflective observation (RO), Assimilative knowledge: abstract conceptualization (AC), whereby experience is reflected on and related to general and abstract ideas, and transformed through reflective observation (RO), Convergent knowledge: abstract conceptualization (AC) transformed through active experimentation (AE), whereby the learner tests ideas by applying them to other areas, Accommodative knowledge: concrete experience (CE) transformed by active experimentation (AE). © 2004-2020 K12academics.com — All Rights Reserved. The focus shifted from how did people reproduce knowledge, to how did they construct it? Beware of labelling students, and be aware of the role of culture in learning styles. Four Learning Styles • Concrete experience (Feeling): A new experience of situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of existing experience. The nature of the learning process Learning is an active, social process Social constructivist scholars view learning as an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves, hence the importance of encouraging guesswork and intuitive thinking in learners. Cognitive theory considers learning according to mental processes. There are three types of memory: short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Allinson and Hayes (1996) are examples of researchers who describe learning styles in terms of cognitive attributes. For example, highly motivated students may learn at their own speed (contract activity packages); others may learn in small steps but without supervision (program learning sequences); each student has one perceptual mode which is stronger, and it is important to reinforce through that mode (multi-sensory instructional packages – for example lectures for an auditory student). Evans, Carol and Sadler-Smith, Eugene (2006), ‘Learning styles in education and training: problems, politicisation and potential’. If we compare the simple, crude ways in which a child feels and behaves, with the complex modes of adult behaviour, his skills, habits, thought, sentiments and the like- we will […] Practical learners who adopt the right strategy for the task in hand, enjoy problem solving and learn by practical application of theory. (2005), ‘The assessment of formal management development’. According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when— The student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, It is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and; Self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. McMahon (1997) agrees that learning is a social process. Through practical activity a child constructs meaning on an intrapersonal level, while speech connects this meaning with the interpersonal world shared by the child and her/his culture. Learning at school requires students to pay attention, to observe, to memorize, to understand, to set goals and to assume responsibility for their own learning. The analytic thinker processes information into its components, looks at detail, is concerned with procedures, and is a logical thinker. Other studies, too, argue for the importance of mentoring in the process of learning. Other constructivist scholars agree with this and emphasize that individuals make meanings through the interactions with each other and with the environment they live in. The visual, auditory and kinaesthetic model, according to which people learn by one of seeing, hearing or doing, has had much influence in schools but lacks a scientific basis. Spicer, D. (2004), ‘The impact of approaches to learning and cognition on academic performance in business and management’. If you’re learning how to do something the wrong way, you’ll continue to use it the wrong way. In this article, we shall give a brief overview of some of the main theories of learning, and examine the current thinking on how different styles should affect teaching. all help here, as do attractively presented visuals using colour and images. The importance of the background and culture of the learner Learning happens as a process of sense making: we need to personalise, to relate to what we already know, to provide a context. The nature of the learner. Meaning of Learning. This creates a dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner. Evans and Sadler-Smith (2006) make a number of useful recommendations on learning styles, which arise out of the 10th Annual Learning Styles Information Network Conference (July 2005, University of Surrey): What is important from a teaching point of view is not just to follow the learners’ (presumed) styles but offer learner-centred teaching that offers choice, variety in modes of delivery and teaching styles, and clarity in goals, feedback, assessment instructions etc. Learning requires the active, constructive involvement of the learner. Dunn’s learning styles model (Dunn and Griggs, 2003) is highly complex and comprises six strands: One of the most interesting things about Dunn’s contribution to the learning styles debate is the way in which he proposes that there should be a match between how students learn and how teachers teach (although this has been widely criticized, see how valid are learning styles?). Learners should be encourages to adopt other styles, and above all, to develop awareness of the ways in which they learn, think, perceive and memorize – metacognition. It consists of 38 items, 21 representing analysis and 17 intuition; the results are summed and then divided by the number of items in that dimension, with the higher the score, the stronger the tendency towards that particular descriptor. This change may range from the acquisition of a relatively simple skill, item of information to the mastery of complicated mechanical performance and application of difficult and abstract reading material, change in response or behavior is caused partly or wholly by experience. Nature of the learning process. Green and Gredler (2002) emphasize learning as an iterative process, involving discursive, adaptive, interactive, and reflexive qualities. History of Education in the United States, Confusion between Constructivist & Maturationist views, The selection, scope & sequencing of subject, Investigations in Numbers, Data, and Space, NCEE (National Center on Education and the Economy), Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, U.S. Department of Education exemplary mathematics programs. For example, most teaching is done through lectures, where the teacher talks to convey the important points. The term ‘learning styles’ relates to the (often unconscious) processes we employ when we learn, which are the result of our brain structure, our personalities, our environment, our culture, and our educational history. Learning based on discussion – the learner flourishes in a group, likes the exchange of ideas. Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners, and learning disabilities.Psychologists who work in this field are interested in how people learn … Underlying such views is a fear of labelling learners, who may in turn evolve different strategies as they develop. 2. 4. Learning is acquiring information or ‘knowing a lot’. According to them the main focus is on the instructor-student relationship. As such, it may not display exactly as originally intended. Psychology reveals to use that an individual possess different kinds to intelligence. Sadler-Smith, E. (1996), ‘Learning styles: a holistic approach’. Böstrum, L. and Lassen, L.v (2006), ‘Unravelling learning, learning styles, learning strategies and meta-cognition’. Learning as making sense or abstracting … The dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner. ... Learning style is ‘…the way each learner begins to concentrate on, process and retain new information’ (Dunn et al., 1994, p.2, quoted in Böstrum and Lassen, 2006) This means that the learning experience is both subjective and objective and requires that the instructor’s culture, values and background become an essential part of the interplay between learners and tasks in the shaping of meaning. That’s where visible learning comes in. This article provides helpful information regarding nature versus nurture and how a child’s environment can encourage their academic potential. Autonomous – the learner likes to have the teacher as a resource, but to have influence over the content and structure of what is learnt. 3. Learning ‘baggage’ may also play a part, for example people may have been oriented towards a particular method at school, or indeed put off learning altogether. This module takes into consideration the holistic nature of individual student learning and the most effective practices for helping them develop into autonomous and responsible learners. By repetition – ‘overlearning’, the continued study of material after it has been learnt. Addressing the whole learner in developmentally appropriate ways includes establishing positive student relationships and listening to each learner’s voice in creating productive learning climates. There are two primary elements in meaning of learning:. 2. This led to the growth of constructivism, according to which knowledge is ‘constructed’ by the learner. The favorable environment, participates in the teaching-learning process by providing a place where there is a smooth flow of communication, avoiding some common barriers between the teacher and the learner. Dependent learning which is teacher directed, highly structured with very explicit assignments, and with lectures, surgeries etc. He asked adult students what they understood by learning. Case study of school students to understand nature of learner and learning process rating. Tickle, S. (2001), ‘What have we learnt about student learning? Learning is Continuous. A learning style may be defined as a ‘distinctive and habitual manner of acquiring knowledge, skills or attitudes through study or experience’. Here are some ways that retention can be increased: Long-term memory consists of a number of schemata which are abstract structures in which new information is stored.
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