: David will not return to “normal life” until Saul is dead, and David is king. Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of your mother’s nakedness? This was a crucial time in David’s life. 1 Samuel Chapter 20 Summary. d. So he arose and departed: David will not return to “normal life” until Saul is dead, and David is king. "Go to the place where you hid yourself when the matter was in hand" (1 Samuel 20:19). God chose David instead, and the Prophet Samuel anointed David as the future king over Israel. (24-34) Saul is enraged when he learns of David’s absence. Are you still behind me?” Essentially, David says “If you really are working for your father and agree with him that I deserve to die, then just kill me now.”. Saul because God offered Saul opportunities for repentance. Either Saul’s heart has changed towards David and, , or Saul was still determined to kill David and. 25. the king sat upon his seat, as at other times... by the wall --The left-hand corner at the upper end of a room was and still is in the East, the most honorable place. You shall not die! But truly, as the Lord lives, and as your soul lives, there is but a step between me and death. Indeed, my father will do nothing either great or small without first telling me. (1 Samuel 20:11). These are days when to stand up for anything more than mere conventional religion must cost something; and for this reason let us never flinch.” (Meyer). "Who will tell me if your father answers you roughly?" 1 Samuel 1:1 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. Conceivably, he could have said, “Where is your faith, brother? “But there is something still nobler – when one dares in any company to avow his loyalty to the Lord Jesus. Please be aware that this might heavily reduce the functionality and appearance of our site. The first day of the feast, David would be missed; but the real test would come if he missed the second day of the feast. "What have I done? David fulfilled this promise to Jonathan (2 Samuel 9:1-8 and 21:7). If Saul’s heart was different towards David, he might have been disappointed but not furious. * [ 1:20 ] Samuel : Hannah’s explanation associates her son’s name with the narrative’s wordplay on the Hebrew verbs s’l (“ask,” vv. Due to security reasons we are not able to show or modify cookies from other domains. He. Yet David left for a good reason: He wanted to know if Saul’s heart had changed, and if there was still a chance to reconcile with Saul. So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David: Jonathan and David agreed to care for one another. David was an honored member of the king's court and, at this point in time, he had not been formally expelled. : After Jonathan learned his father’s heart and intention towards David, he would communicate to David through a signal. " From the most ancient times, it has been customary to revile a person by slandering or belittling his ancestors. Indeed, my father will do nothing either great or small without first telling me. Man proposes, but God disposes. But the Spirit of God came even upon him, and he walked along prophesying until he came … As soon as the lad had gone, David arose from. For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, you shall not be established, nor your kingdom. 1 Samuel 20:1-42 shows us Jonathan warning David about Saul's determination to kill David. Either Saul’s heart has changed towards David and there is safety for you, or Saul was still determined to kill David and the LORD has sent you away. As soon as the lad had gone, David arose from a place toward the south, fell on his face to the ground, and bowed down three times. It often does not seem fair that so much in life should turn on small moments, but a lifetime is made of nothing but many small moments. When I have sounded out my father: Jonathan will find out his father’s heart and will report it to David, to say if it is good or bad towards David. It appears that this appeal by Jonathan to David was made during their journey together "into the field." Saul meant by this that Jonathan's mother, "Would become the wife of the new king. Go in peace, since we have both sworn in the name of the LORD, : Jonathan knew he might never see David again. Yet as David now left for a life of hiding and danger, Jonathan could send David away. i. Jonathan was a lot like David. This shows how deep Saul’s hatred of David was – he would kill his own son for siding with David. The first day of the feast, David would be missed; but the real test would come if he missed the second day of the feast. He wanted to know what, thought but it was more important for David to know what. “David, even if you must leave the palace and your home behind and flee as a fugitive, the LORD will be with you. Jonathan knew that God was really for Saul because God offered Saul opportunities for repentance. Jonathan senses that David is in a vulnerable place and he wants to give him encouragement in the midst of it. Despite Saul’s intentions, David would not die at the hands of Saul or any other enemy. He was a ruler who governed He also remembered that Jonathan’s support for him was challenged by the fact that Jonathan. 1 Samuel: Bible Study and Commentary. So they both went out into the field.". But David more so: If Jonathan had reason to weep, David had more so. : Certainly, this was Saul’s intention, despite his previous oath (, As the LORD lives, he shall not be killed. SAUL DEMANDS A REASON FOR DAVID'S ABSENCE, "Yet Saul did not say anything that day; for he thought, "Something has befallen him; he is not clean, surely he is not clean. And so it was, in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad, with him. Así trata el Señor a quienes prepara para la gloria. This episode confirmed the status of David as an outlaw, to be hunted down and destroyed like a ravenous beast, provided that Saul, with all of the resources of the kingdom of Israel at his disposal, could successfully achieve it. And Jonathan gave his weapons to the lad, and said to him, "Go and carry them to the city." SAUL VIOLENTLY ANGRY WITH DAVID AND JONATHAN, "Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman, do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame, and to the shame of your mother's nakedness? (12-13) Jonathan will discover the state of his father’s heart towards David. INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 20. So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and ate no food the second day of the month, for he was grieved for David, because his father had treated him shamefully. Jonathan had a noble commitment to David as a friend. So now, if I have found favor in your eyes, let me go away, and see my brothers.' He was in this purpose the avowed enemy, not only of David, but of God Himself. He could no longer go home. He is always calling us to pass beyond the thing we know into the unknown. At any rate, Saul demanded from Jonathan a reason for David's absence. 1-10.Las pruebas que enfrentó David le prepararon para su futuro progreso. The pain of being apart was bad enough, but it was worse for David because he was cut off from everything and destined to live the life of a fugitive for many years. Copyright StatementJames Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. : David now poses a practical problem. And as for the matter of which you and I have spoken, behold, the Lord is between you and me forever.". The problem David mentioned here was simply that of how the result of the proposed test of Saul's attitude could be communicated to David when Saul got back in town. Click to enable/disable _ga - Google Analytics Cookie. You shall not die. Jonathan and David probably envisioned working, , as partners, as friends, both before and after the time David became king. Either he would be welcomed back to the palace and his home or he would be a fugitive until Saul gave up the hunt for David. (5-11) David proposes to test Saul’s attitude. He knew that Saul attempted to kill him many times, and it seemed Saul would not quit until David was gone. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 20:4". F. C. Cook wrote that, "This hiding place was either a natural cavernous rock, or some ruin of an ancient building, especially suited for a hiding place. Saul had, at this time, become very suspicious and critical of his son Jonathan, especially regarding his friendship for David. The Jews, and many other ancient peoples, celebrated a feast of the new moon. We may request cookies to be set on your device. : David and Jonathan loved each other and had a strong bond of friendship. Saul told … 17 , 27 ), his’il (“hand over, dedicate,” v. For if I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father to come upon you, then would I not tell you?” Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me, or what. Nevertheless Saul did not say anything that day, for he thought, “Something has happened to him; he is unclean, surely he is unclean.” And it happened the next day, the second day of the month, that David’s place was empty. There is nothing here that demands any special comment. In asking, “What have I done?” David wanted to know if Jonathan has come to a place of agreement with his father Saul. David reinforced his words with a double oath, and provided Jonathan with the real reason why he had not been taken into the king's confidence in the matter of his decision to kill David. It became perfectly clear to all present, when Saul thus addressed Jonathan, that Saul would not only kill David if possible, but anyone else who stood between him and the achievement of his fiendish purpose. : David was expected to be at this special feast of the, , and so he his absence was clearly noticed. But if it pleases my father. (35-40) Jonathan reports to David through the signal of the arrows. " This explains why Jonathan was slow to believe that David was in any danger. It would turn upon Jonathan's words to the lad who would be assigned to chase his arrows. "In the morning Jonathan went out into the field to the appointment with David, and with him a little lad. Why aren’t you just trusting God?” Instead Jonathan knew David’s heart was pointed in the right direction, and he offered to help. b. SAUL, MISSING DAVID, SEEKS TO KILL JONAHAN. a. And send you away, that you may go in safety: Jonathan knows that if his father Saul intends evil against David it means that David must go away. In these words, Saul recognized the prevalent Oriental custom of those times that gave all of a deposed king's wives and concubines to his successor. This bleak road was important in David’s life because if David was to be set in such a great position of authority, David must learn to submit to God’s authority, even if it were through a man like Saul. Then David hid in the field. Nevertheless Saul did not say anything that day, for he thought, “Something has happened to him; he, unclean.” And it happened the next day, the second, of the month, that David’s place was empty. And Jonathan made David swear again by his love for him; for he loved him as he loved his own soul.". Click on the different category headings to find out more. ” David wanted to know if Jonathan has come to a place of agreement with his father Saul. c. And the LORD will be with you as He has been with my father: Jonathan wants to give David more than a warning; he gives him encouragement also. "If there is guilt in me, slay me yourself" (1 Samuel 20:8). Jonathan agreed to care for David in the face of Saul’s threat and David agreed to care for Jonathan and his family in the future. At least not everybody wants David dead (I Samuel 19) 1 And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David. And on the third day you will be greatly missed; then go to the place where you hid yourself when the matter was in hand, and remain beside yonder stone heap. . ii. You are free to opt out any time or opt in for other cookies to get a better experience. He didn’t know that Saul set out to get David at Naioth, though previously his father told him everything. You shall not cut off your kindness from my house forever. i. 1 Samuel 1:22 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls always. He knew that Saul attempted to kill him many times, and it seemed Saul would not quit until David was gone. "Filial attachment naturally blinded the prince to defects in the parental character. Eli the priest led him. As one of the king's chief advisers, Jonathan felt sure that he would have been informed of any such intention on the part of his father. Then I will shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a target; and there I will send a lad, saying, ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If I expressly say to him, ‘Look, the arrows are on this side of you; get them and come’—then, as the LORD lives, there is safety for you and no harm. a. And I will shoot three arrows to the side of it, as though I shot at a mark. " Second Samuel has this statement from the prophet Nathan in his rebuke of David for his adultery with Bathsheba and his murder of her husband: "Neither you nor your kingdom shall be established" (1 Samuel 20:31). a. He could have simply stayed there for however long it took Saul to give up or die. You shall not cut off your kindness from my house forever: Jonathan was aware of the political dynamic between the family of David and the family of Jonathan. (41-42) The tearful farewell of David and Jonathan. "Tomorrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit at the table with the king" (1 Samuel 20:5). c. Far be it from you: With this encouragement Jonathan told David to no longer doubt his loyalty. Note that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our websites and the services we are able to offer. b. He was even expected to sit at the king's table in the approaching feast of the new moon. v. “Let God empty you out that He may save you from becoming spiritually stale, and lead you ever onward. And Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her. David was uncertain whether he was indeed committed to life as a fugitive and an outlaw, or if Saul's violent attempt to take his life might be attributed to a sudden fit of madness, and from which a reconciliation through the aid of Jonathan might be arranged, as upon a similar previous occasion. ", This trip of David to Saul's court in Gibeah was exceedingly dangerous; but in the circumstances it was absolutely necessary. The rest of First Samuel is devoted to the record of how God protected and preserved David from the myriad dangers that confronted him. a. You always can block or delete cookies by changing your browser settings and force blocking all cookies on this website. "There is but a step between me and death" (1 Samuel 20:3). And why should my father hide this thing from me? "Whatever you say, I will do for you" (1 Samuel 20:4). What has he done?” Then Saul cast a spear at him to kill him, by which Jonathan knew that it was determined by his father to kill David. He wanted to know what Saul thought but it was more important for David to know what Jonathan thought. Jonathan, through filial loyalty, would not desert his father even when that inevitable day of reckoning would come. 1 Samuel 1:20 Samuel sounds like the Hebrew for heard by God. God gives us leave, in prayer, not only to ask good things in general, but to mention that special good thing we most need and desire. 2. Then David fled from Naioth: The Spirit of God protected David in Naioth in a powerful way. That reason was the king's knowledge that Jonathan, through his friendship for David, would not have approved of it. "Then David fled from Nairoth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, "What have I done? “Jonathan made one vain attempt to reason with the furious monarch; he might as well have tried to arrest the swelling of Jordan in the time of flood.” (Meyer), And so it was, in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad was with him. Because these cookies are strictly necessary to deliver the website, refuseing them will have impact how our site functions. Introduction. The king had recently sworn in a solemn oath that David should not die. What has he done?” Then Saul cast a spear at him to kill him, by which Jonathan knew that it was determined by his father to kill David. It is hard to see where this incident can be made to fit in.". It is not so" (1 Samuel 20:2). 21 When it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, i and they also … Like David, he is now in obscurity and disrepute; his name is not popular; his gospel is misrepresented; his followers are subjected to rebuke and scorn. This was a pretty bleak road for David to walk, but it was God’s road for him. Click to enable/disable Google reCaptcha. That visitation had overtones of prophecy connected with it; and, near the beginning of Saul's career, such an experience had resulted in Saul's being turned, "into another man" (, "David is still a court member and would be acting very improperly if he absented himself at the approaching festival without permission.". What have I done: Here David checked his relationship with Jonathan. David was the son-in-law of King Saul, having recently married his daughter Michal. 1 Samuel 20 – Jonathan’s Final Attempt to Reconcile His Father and David A. David, coming from Naioth, meets Jonathan. And he and Samuel went and lived at Naioth. Therefore you shall deal kindly with your servant, for you have brought your servant into a covenant of the LORD with you. Yet David left for a good reason: He wanted to know if Saul’s heart had changed, and if there was still a chance to reconcile with Saul. " "He also believed that his father would honor his oath that David should not be put to death. Jonathan also assured David of his protection by warning David of Saul’s intentions. 1 Samuel 20. Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and went and said to Jonathan, “What have I done? Christological Focus- The Role of Friendship in Light of Christ’s Coming. Vv. b. If Saul has determined evil against David and Jonathan intends to warn him, how will he do it? This final meeting of David and Jonathan is sad indeed. For if I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father to come upon you, then would I not tell you?” Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me, or what if your father answers you roughly?” And Jonathan said to David, “Come, and let us go out into the field.” So both of them went out into the field. ii. Commentary on 1 Samuel 1:9-11, 19-20; 2:1-10 View Bible Text The title for this narrative lectionary is apt: from a place of deep sadness Hannah prays to God, vowing that if God will give her a son, she will dedicate that son to God. Click to enable/disable Google Analytics tracking. One may wonder if some tattle tale at Saul's court, who perhaps had seen David and Jonathan together "in the field," had told Saul of it. But let me go, that I may hide in the field until the third, at evening. "These words possibly meant that Jonathan was born of a prostitute. So Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows and came to his master. He could even hear it in the songs the women sang about David (18:7), in the deep love and affection shown David by his own family (18:1-5, 20), and the respect and admiration he gained from those in … He is the remarkably brave man of faith who initiated a one-man war against the Philistines. And what is my sin before your father that he seeks my life"? b. a. If Saul has determined evil against David and Jonathan intends to warn him, how will he do it? In fact, David and Jonathan will only meet once more, shortly before Jonathan’s death. “And you shall not only show me the kindness of the LORD while I still live, that I may not die; but you shall not cut off your kindness from my house forever, no, not when the LORD has cut off every one of the enemies of David from the face of the earth.” So Jonathan made. As Willis noted, "These events (of 1 Samuel 19-20) transpired over a relatively brief period, following the ostensible reconciliation between Saul and David in 1 Samuel 19:7. But if 50say to the youth, `Look, the arrows are beyond you,' then go, for the Lord has sent you away. David was now a fugitive on the run from an angry, jealous king determined to destroy him. Not himself, not Saul, not Jonathan, not anyone except God. And Jonathan called after the lad, "Hurry, make haste, stay not." Jonathan exacted from David a solemn oath that, "after Jonathan's death," and after David's coming to the throne, that David would remember the house of Jonathan with kindness. Then Jonathan said to David: “The LORD God of Israel is witness! If he says, `Good? In this, he also honored Jonathan as the Crown Prince of Israel and the heir-apparent of the throne. Bibliography InformationCoffman, James Burton. But now all that was gone because David couldn’t stay and Jonathan couldn’t go, so they, : If Jonathan had reason to weep, David had. a. Jonathan’s support of David enraged Saul and. Now the king sat on his seat, as at other times, on a seat by the wall. Jonathan expressed astonishment that his father did not tell him but assures David of his heart towards him. The second point may be more interesting than relevant. One night with the wrong crowd may give a boy an arrest record. How will Jonathan get the message to David?
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